How Does Aquaponics Work Step By Step?

How does aquaponics work step by step?

Aquaponics is an innovative form of controlled agriculture that utilizes the symbiotic relationship between fish and plants. Aquaponics combines traditional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) to create an integrated system of food production. The goal of aquaponics is to create a system that is both sustainable and efficient, making it an attractive option for backyard gardeners and commercial farmers alike.Also checkout about prepration of aquaponics water.

In this article, we will discuss what aquaponics is, as well as how to set up a basic aquaponics system step by step:

Definition of aquaponics

Aquaponics is a form of sustainable agriculture in which plants and aquatic animals are raised together in an integrated, recirculating system. It combines the cultivation of fish, like Tilapia or Trout, with soilless vegetable production (hydroponics) and uses natural bacteria to convert fish waste into available nutrients for the plants. This innovative agricultural practice has the potential to improve food production efficiency while reducing the environmental impacts associated with traditional farming methods.

In aquaponics systems, fish and plants mutually benefit each other; water is pumped from a fish tank containing nitrogen-rich waste and fed through hydroelectric beds where beneficial bacteria convert it into nitrates which are then absorbed by plants roots. The clean water from these beds then returns to the fish tank continuously cycling through this process. This water-saving technology can save up to 90% of the amount of water typically used for soil-based growing systems. Additionally, due to its efficient nature, these systems can grow more food per unit area than traditional farming techniques making aquaponics a great tool for urban farmers who may operate in limited space environments.

Benefits of aquaponics

Aquaponics is an innovative and sustainable method of growing plants and raising fish together in a symbiotic environment. This type of system requires no soil, uses only a fraction of the water and energy necessary for traditional agriculture, and produces higher yields than conventional gardening methods. Furthermore, there are many additional benefits to aquaponics that make it a great choice for growers who are seeking to lower their impact on the environment or are interested in obtaining food security for their families.

The main advantages aquaponics systems offer include:

  • Increased yield due to better growth conditions
  • Decreased water consumption needs compared to other soil-based gardening methods
  • Lower maintenance costs because it does not require soil or fertilizer additions like traditional gardens do
  • Reduced carbon footprint due to lower energy consumption since no additional heating or cooling equipment is needed
  • Increased production of naturally organic foods as there is no need for any chemical treatments on plants or fish
  • High levels of biodiversity due to promoting beneficial insects, aquatic animals, and birds at the same time as plant cultivation
  • Minimizing pests threats that affect traditional farms because aquaponic systems have few germs, pests, weeds or diseases.

Aquaponics System Components

Aquaponics is an integrated system combining aquaculture and hydroponics. It is an efficient and sustainable way of growing a variety of plants and fishes.

To set up an aquaponics system, there are certain components needed to ensure proper functioning of the system. This section will cover the components required for a successful aquaponics system:

Fish tank

A key component in any aquaponics system is the fish tank. It stores the fish, which provide nutrients for the plants and produce waste that the plants need to survive. A number of factors are important in deciding the size of fish tank need such as how much food and water are necessary, size and species of the fish, and what type of system you have chosen to use.

Your choice of tank depends on your goals and set up. If you’re focusing on aquaculture, you’ll need a large tank with high flow rate since your goal is to cultivate a large population of edible fish for food production or to sell. If you’re progressing with a small-scale DIY aquaponic system as a hobbyist or beginner, smaller tanks can be used as long as they are outfitted with pumps, bubblers, filtration systems, air stones, heaters, aerators, thermometers and other necessary pieces of equipment.

When considering different tanks for your aquaponics setup it’s important to consider not only size but material quality because well-made materials will help ensure better performance over time including temperature control. Commonly used fish tanks include aquariums (glass/acrylic or plastic tubs) IBC totes (Industrial Bulk Container), stock tanks (water troughs), rain catchment systems (large barrels) and other custom made containers made specifically for aquaponic systems.

Grow bed

A grow bed is the aquarium component in an aquaponics system where the fish waste is broken down by beneficial bacteria and converted into plant food. The grow beds contain a medium such as gravel or expanded clay pebbles which provides a large surface area for the bacteria to colonize and convert ammonia produced by fish into nitrates. In addition, the material provides a foundation for plants to hold in place and help extract nutrients from water.

The most important aspect of any aquaponics system is good filtration and circulation of water throughout the entire system. Good flow can prevent problems such as inadequate oxygen levels and sediment build-up in tanks, both of which can lead to ill-health of your fish. The grow beds require a steady flow rate to ensure all parts are getting adequate coverage from oxygenated water and nutrients from fish waste.

Apart from adequate filtration feeds, certain designs involve using bell siphons or standpipes to automatically switch valves on or off on different sides of the tank so that water periodically flushes out the system at predetermined intervals, providing oxygenation throughout. Other strategies involve having solids-handling pumps or filters built into the setup to provide constant cleaning cycles with minimal manual intervention. Choosing a suitable grow bed design ultimately depends on parameters such as tank size and flow rate desired, as well as budget restrictions if any are imposed.


The pump is an integral part of the aquaponics system, as it keeps the water flowing through the system and helps maintain oxygen levels for healthy aquatic life. The type of pump you choose will depend on the size and style of your aquaponics system, as well as your budget.

Submersible pumps are submerged in the tank, making them quieter and more energy efficient than other types. They’re often used in smaller systems because they can easily be removed or replaced if they fail or break down. For larger systems, external pumps are usually preferred due to their higher flow rates and increased efficiency. External pumps should be placed outside of your grow beds in order to provide complete circulation of water throughout the entire system.

It’s important to select a pump that matches your system’s size and type; too much power can cause problems such as over-oxygenation, while not enough could result in poor plant growth from insufficient water flow. Additionally, make sure to double check whether or not the size of your hosing is compatible with the diameter of the pump you’ve selected – an undersized hosing will reduce efficiency dramatically!


In an aquaponics system, the filter is an integral part of keeping the water clear of solid waste so that the plants can uptake necessary nutrients from the water. A properly sized filter will help keep the levels of fish waste, solid particles and other contaminants down. There are many types of filters for aquaponics systems such as mechanical, biological and chemical filters.

  • Mechanical filters remove particles from the water by trapping them in a media such as ceramic rings or gravel. Mechanical filters will need to be monitored and cleaned routinely to ensure that they are working properly and not clogging up.
  • Biological filters use beneficial bacteria to process organic wastes into nitrates which can then be uptaken by plants. These bacteria form colonies on special media where they feed on organic matter in the water. These systems work best when they are well established with proper balance between bacteria, beneficial microorganisms and beneficial macroorganisms.
  • Chemical filtration uses chemicals such as activated carbon or ion exchange resins within a filter material to absorb compounds suspended in solution in order to improve water clarity or reduce odors or other compounds that might be present in the aquatic environment. Chemical filtration is often used along with mechanical and/or biological filtration to provide additional filtration benefits for aquaponic systems where high quality results are desired.

Air pump

An air pump is an important piece of equipment in any aquaponics system. It provides oxygen to the water, which helps to keep the fish and plants healthy. The air pump also aids in bio-filtration, a process that removes organic material from the water as it passes through the system.

Air pumps come in many sizes and with various features. When selecting an air pump for your aquaponics system, it’s important to consider factors like power output, flow rate, noise level, and cost. In general, air pumps should be able to provide 5-15 liters of air per minute (LPM). The actual thing you need will depend on the size of your system and how heavily stocked it is with fish. If you are unsure what size pump is right for you needs, it’s best to consult with a knowledgeable aquaponics enthusiast or expert before making a decision.

How does aquaponics work step by step?

Aquaponics Cycle

Aquaponics is an ecosystem integration of aquaculture and hydroponics that requires only minimal water and land resources. It is a closed cycle system that works in a variety of sizes and can provide sustainable food production with minimal inputs and outputs.

To understand how it works, it is important to first understand the basic components and the cycle of aquaponics. Let’s take a look at the cycle:

Nitrification cycle

The aquaponics cycle involves a highly efficient biological process of establishing an equilibrium between fish and plants. This natural balance is known as the nitrification cycle and its importance cannot be overstated.

The nitrification cycle is an essential part of the aquaponics ecosystem because it cycles the nutrients between the fish and the plants, allowing both systems to thrive simultaneously.

The exchange of nutrients begins with ammonia excreted from the fish, which serves as a primary source of food for bacteria in the water column. Through the process of nitrification, these bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites, then convert nitrites into nitrates. These nutrients are assimilated by plants in order to create vital enzymes necessary for healthy plant growth and development. In this way, aquaponics can become a fully self-contained system that continuously produces healthy food for humans.

The nitrogenous wastes produced by fish are broken down into other forms of nutrients by naturally occurring bacteria that colonize biofiltration media within your aquaponic system. These specialized bacteria create an ideal environment within the closed loop system which encourages nitrification in your aquaponics setup – ultimately promoting growth in both fishes and plants.

Solids filtration

Solids filtration is a key process in aquaponic systems. Solid waste consists of leftover fish food, fish feces, and other organic matter. As solids accumulate over time, they can cause a decrease in oxygen levels in the water and increase the chance of disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the solid waste from the system. This can be accomplished with mechanical or biological filtration systems.

Mechanical filters are typically used to physically remove large particles from the water using a fine mesh screen or sponge. Biological filters are riddled with millions of microscopic bacteria that feed on organic matter and convert it into less harmful by-products like nitrates and phosphates before releasing it as waste outside the system. From here, these by-products will travel to your plants where they will be further used as nutrients for growth.

In some cases, additional methods such as foam fractionators are necessary for filtering out fine particulates that get through mechanical filters and biofilters. It is important to keep your filter systems clean at all times to ensure maximum efficiency and prevent health issues in aquatic life.

Water cycling

Water cycling is an integral part of the aquaponics system and involves a consistent flow of water in and out of the system. This process helps maintain the water balance in the tanks, removes waste, and prevents oxygen levels from dropping too low. In a typical aquaponics system, water enters through a pump or an aerator such as an air stone and runs though each component: the fish tank, root zone, and sump before being discharged back into the environment.

In order for aquatic organisms to survive in their environment, essential particulate nutrients must be provided either naturally or artificially. Usually this includes some combination of bacteria that break down excess organic materials like fish waste into simple molecules that can be used by plants for growth and nutrition. These bacteria convert nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen molecules from ammonia (NH4+) that is excreted by the fish. The nitrate then enters the plant roots where it provides key nutrients necessary for healthy plant growth in exchange for respiration carbon dioxide which is then re-used by the fish to breathe and make energy through photosynthesis!

Once dissolved gasses have been absorbed by plants or animals in an aquaponic system they are no longer available in solution which means they need to be replenished consistently with oxygen produced externally either through air stones or air pumps. The cycle then repeats as water flows continuously over different components completing one full loop before returning back out into its original state!

Planting and Harvesting

Aquaponics is an innovative system that combines aquaculture and hydroponics, allowing for growing plants and fish in a closed-loop, symbiotic ecosystem. When it comes to planting and harvesting, aquaponics is a great way to produce food on a small scale with minimal effort.

In this article, we will go through the steps of planting and harvesting in aquaponics:

Plant selection

The first step to creating a successful aquaponics system is selecting the right type of plants to cultivate. Not all plants do well in an aquaponic garden, and it’s important to choose species that prefer the aquatic environment. Plants that are known to thrive in aquaponics gardens include:

  • Lettuce
  • Spinach
  • Basil
  • Chives
  • Oregano
  • Thyme

Once you have selected your desired plants, you should determine when they will be ready for harvest. Most vegetables grown in an aquaponic system will reach maturity within 90 to 120 days from planting—depending on the size and type of crop. The amount of light available during this time also helps determine how quickly a crop matures. Some types of vegetables can be harvested multiple times over the 90-120 day period; for example, lettuce may be harvested multiple times as individual leaves before completely uprooting the plant itself. Proper timing can help ensure successful harvests throughout the growing season while avoiding nutrient overdoses caused by mature crops going unwanted or unharvested.


Planting is an important part of the aquaponics cycle and will greatly impact your success. When selecting plants for your system, keep in mind that they must be able to tolerate the water levels and temperatures of the system. Use a water thermometer to check the temperature of your water regularly.

The ideal planting time for most vegetables will be between spring and summer for best results. To begin planting seeds, you should fill a net pot with clay pebbles or expanded shaleor Aquaclay as growing mediums are known in aquaponics, as well as an inert material added on top like vermiculite which helps with seed germination. The net pots sit atop a flex tube that houses the nutrient-rich water from the fish tank.

Your plant seeds can then be sowed directly into the net pots or pre-germinated either using standard soil mediums or grow pads specifically designed for aquaponics systems. Once your seedlings have grown to two to four inches in height, they can then be pruned back to encourage bushier growth habits, depending on what type of plant it is. It’s important to place plant supports such as trellises or tomato cages around plants that require them.

You should also thin any congested areas when necessary before attaching themto support structures like lines and trellises above them so that they can climb up these structures for support and increased airflow into their canopy leaves such as tomatoes and cucumbers do very well when supported this way allowing optimal access to sunlight which helps their growth cycle.


Harvesting in aquaponics is relatively simple and makes use of the same principles employed in traditional agriculture. After the vegetables are planted, they will reach maturity within a few weeks or months depending on the type of crop. The harvest window can be extended over weeks or even months by using a staggered planting schedule. It’s important to note that plants grown in aquaponics generally tend to come to maturity faster than those grown in traditional soil-based methods due to the nutrient-rich water.

Once ready, fruits and vegetables can simply be snipped or plucked with scissors directly off their respective trellis or growing bed.

After fruits and vegetables are harvested, it is important for growers to ensure that any waste material from their produce is disposed of properly outside of the grow bed system since it could introduce contaminants if left inside the tank environment. Waste material should also not be mixed with any organic matter intended for use as manure since it could lead to contamination issues if introduced into an aquaponic system. While this may seem tedious, responsibly managing post-harvest waste can save time, money and headaches during future maintenance activities!


Aquaponics is an incredibly adaptable and low-maintenance method of producing healthy, fresh vegetables and fish. To keep a successful aquaponics system running, there are a few important maintenance steps that must be followed to ensure a healthy ecosystem.

In this section, we will discuss proper maintenance techniques, such as:

  • Changing and testing the water
  • Cleaning the tanks
  • Monitoring the levels of nitrates and other nutrients.

Water testing

Water testing is the process of collecting and analyzing samples of water to check for environmental indicators of water quality and the presence of pollutants. Testing the water in an aquaponics system is an essential step in maintaining a balanced environment where plants, fish, and bacteria can all thrive. Testing allows you to detect nitrate and ammonia levels, track pH balance, check dissolved oxygen levels and monitor other parts of physical chemistry that impact fish health and plant growth.

The testing process begins by collecting a sample from the water source; you’ll need to test pH at least once a week, as well as other chemicals regularly depending on your setup. Collecting sample from inside your tank or system will give you better results than taking a sample from water run-off through an outlet filter. Test strips are the quickest way to get results for pH levels, but chemical tests are the best way to determine more exact measurements. Digital meters or submersible probes measure more accurately when taking readings for dissolved oxygen content, pH balance, ammonia concentration and other indicators of aquatic health.

Regular testing helps ensure that your aquaponics system is running optimally and that plants get adequate nutrition from their nutrient-rich environment. Additionally, testing allows you to avoid over-feeding – which can lead to poor water conditions – or underfeeding – which can lead to poor plant growth. Therefore it’s important that aquaponics users test the waters frequently in order to keep their systems healthy and balanced.

Cleaning and maintenance

Cleaning and maintenance are critically important for the long-term success of any aquaponic set up. Regularly cleaning your system ensures that the fundamental parameters for healthy fish and plant growth remain consistent, and the tanks remain clear enough for fish to be visible.

It also helps to prevent biofilm from forming on surfaces, which can host disease-causing pathogens. Cleanliness is necessary in all parts of the aquaponic system: both within and outside of the tanks. As a general rule, you should routinely clean every part of your aquaponic setup once or twice per month.

Common tasks include:

  • Scrubbing down biofilters with plain water and vinegar;
  • Rinsing off grow beds with a hose;
  • Inspecting pumps and plumbing systems;
  • Cleaning fish tanks;
  • Removing algae or plants that have died;
  • Replacing gravel in both main tanks and grow beds;
  • Intermittently super chlorinating all components of the system;
  • Testing pH levels in the tanks, reservoirs, and grow beds;
  • Trimming aquatic plant roots when needed (such as an excessive growth of duckweed);
  • Erasing etching due to fish feces buildup in pumps or pipes;
  • Cleaning or replacing external media filters/uv filters;
  • Performing detailed inspections monthly for diseases (and treating as necessary);
  • Checking for leaks or broken piping on a regular basis.

It’s essential that you take preventive steps to maintain a clean handle on your aquaponics operation – neglecting it could result in blocked filtration systems, poor quality plants, low oxygen levels adversely affecting plant health, and ultimately death of some plants as well as your fish!


When it comes to maintaining an aquaponic system, troubleshooting any potential problems can help you act quickly if you notice an issue. It’s important to pay close attention to the indicators that something is wrong with your system. Common signs include increasing levels of ammonia, pH imbalance, nitrites accumulating and fish exhibiting signs of stress or disease.

In such cases, it’s important to regularly test water samples for consistent monitoring of parameters such as temperature, nitrite/nitrate levels and pH balance. In some cases, quickly rectifying parameters can be enough to solve various problems – for instance adjusting the pH balance or increasing aeration levels. If a problem persists then identifying the root cause is essential. Typically this is done by testing for uneaten food, unfiltered particles or bacteria overpopulation in the water – all of which can have adverse impacts on fish welfare should they accumulate beyond safe levels.

It’s also important not to overfeed your fish since excess food could result in increased ammonia and nitrite production in the water – leading to problems such as distress or disease among your fish population. Once identified, quick action must be taken depending on the problem:

  • Feeding schedules may need adjusting;
  • More aeration may be required;
  • Filters may need replacing;
  • Unwanted solid waste may need removing manually; and
  • Sometimes corrective solutions such as adding beneficial bacteria may be required in order to restore healthy bacterial populations within the water parameters.

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